CHOOSE WHO YOU ARE, DON’T LET IT BE DETERMINED

 

Degrees conferred by sex and race

Question:
What is the percentage of degrees conferred by sex and race?

Response:

From 1999–2000 to 2009–10, the percentage of degrees earned by females remained between approximately 60 and 62 percent for associate’s degrees and between 57 and 58 percent for bachelor’s degrees. In contrast, the percentages of both master’s and doctor’s degrees earned by females increased from 1999–2000 to 2009–10. Within each racial/ethnic group, women earned the majority of degrees at all levels in 2009–10. For example, among U.S. residents, Black females earned 68 percent of associate’s degrees, 66 percent of bachelor’s degrees, 71 percent of master’s degrees, and 65 percent of all doctor’s degrees awarded to Black students. Hispanic females earned 62 percent of associate’s degrees, 61 percent of bachelor’s degrees, 64 percent of master’s degrees, and 55 percent of all doctor’s degrees awarded to Hispanic students.

From 1999–2000 to 2009–10, the number of degrees earned among U.S. residents increased for students of all racial/ethnic groups for each level of degree, but at varying rates. For associate’s, bachelor’s, and master’s degrees, the change in percentage distribution of degree recipients was characterized by an increase in the numbers of degrees conferred to Black and Hispanic students. For doctor’s degrees, the change in percentage distribution of degree recipients was characterized by an increase in the numbers of degrees conferred to Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander students.

Among U.S. residents, the number of associate’s degrees earned by Hispanic students more than doubled from academic years 1999–2000 to 2009–10 (increasing by 118 percent), and the number earned by Black students increased by 89 percent. As a result, Blacks earned 14 percent and Hispanics earned 13 percent of all associate’s degrees awarded in 2009–10, up from 11 percent and 9 percent, respectively, in 1999–2000. During the same time period, the number of bachelor’s degrees awarded to Black students increased by 53 percent, and the number awarded to Hispanic students increased by 87 percent. In 2009–10, Black students earned 10 percent and Hispanics earned 9 percent of all bachelor’s degrees conferred, versus the 9 and 6 percent, respectively, earned in 1999–2000. Similarly, the numbers of master’s degrees earned by Black and Hispanic students more than doubled from 1999–2000 to 2009–10 (increasing by 109 percent and 125 percent, respectively). As a result, among U.S. residents in 2009–10, Black students earned 12 percent and Hispanics earned 7 percent of all master’s degrees conferred, up from 9 percent and 5 percent, respectively, in 1999–2000. In addition, the number of doctor’s degrees awarded increased by 60 percent for Hispanic students and by 47 percent for Black students.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Indicator 47.

Number of degrees conferred to U.S. residents by degree-granting institutions, percentage distribution of degrees conferred, and percentage of degrees conferred to females, by level of degree and race/ethnicity: Academic years 1999–2000 and 2009–10
Level of degree and race/ethnicity Number Percentage distribution Percent conferred to females
1999–2000 2009–10 1999–2000 2009–10 1999–2000 2009–10
Associate’s 554,845 833,337 100.0 100.0 60.3 62.0
White 408,772 552,863 73.7 66.3 59.8 60.9
Black 60,221 113,905 10.9 13.7 65.2 68.3
Hispanic 51,573 112,211 9.3 13.5 59.4 62.4
Asian/Pacific Islander 27,782 44,021 5.0 5.3 56.8 58.5
American Indian/Alaska Native 6,497 10,337 1.2 1.2 65.8 64.9
Bachelor’s 1,198,809 1,602,480 100.0 100.0 57.5 57.4
White 929,106 1,167,499 77.5 72.9 56.6 56.0
Black 108,013 164,844 9.0 10.3 65.7 65.9
Hispanic 75,059 140,316 6.3 8.8 59.6 60.7
Asian/Pacific Islander 77,912 117,422 6.5 7.3 54.0 54.5
American Indian/Alaska Native 8,719 12,399 0.7 0.8 60.3 60.7
Master’s 406,761 611,693 100.0 100.0 60.0 62.6
White 324,981 445,038 79.9 72.8 59.6 61.8
Black 36,595 76,458 9.0 12.5 68.2 71.1
Hispanic 19,384 43,535 4.8 7.1 60.1 64.3
Asian/Pacific Islander 23,538 42,072 5.8 7.0 52.0 54.3
American Indian/Alaska Native 2,263 3,960 0.6 0.6 62.7 64.3
Doctor’s1 106,494 140,505 100.0 100.0 47.0 53.3
White 82,984 104,426 77.9 74.3 45.4 51.4
Black 7,080 10,417 6.6 7.4 61.0 65.2
Hispanic 5,039 8,085 4.7 5.8 48.4 55.0
Asian/Pacific Islander 10,684 16,625 10.0 11.8 48.8 56.5
American Indian/Alaska Native 707 952 0.7 0.7 52.9 54.8

1 Includes Ph.D., Ed.D., and comparable degrees at the doctoral level. Includes most degrees formerly classified as first-professional, such as M.D., D.D.S., and law degrees.

NOTE: Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Reported racial/ethnic distributions of students by type of degree, field of degree, and sex were used to estimate race/ethnicity for students whose race/ethnicity was not reported. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Nonresident aliens are excluded because information about their race/ethnicity is not available. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). The Condition of Education 2012 (NCES 2012-045), Table A-47-2.

 

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 26.

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

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